Abbasid Caliphate

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Introduction: The Abbasid Caliphate was established after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate. Abul Abbas was the founder of the Abbasid Caliphate. He became known as Abul Abbas As-Saffah. This Caliphate reign from 750 AD to 1258 AD. It’s 3rd caliphate in Muslim history. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty. This dynasty had 37 caliphs.

Naming and Identification: The Abbasid Caliphate is named after Al-Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty is named after him.

Abbasid movement: After Ali’s death, his son Muhammad took over the family. He was the dreamer of the Abbasi movement. He considered himself a just claimant to the caliphate. After his death, Hashim took the lead. Before his death, Hashim gave religious leadership to Muhammad, the grandson of Ibn Abbas. Before his death, Muhammad nominated his three sons, Ibrahim, Abul Abbas, and Abu Jafar, as his successors. Ibrahim led the movement during the second Marwan. He was captured in 747 AD. He was killed in prison. After that, his brother Abul Abbas took the movement forward. He became known as Abul Abbas As-Saffah. In 750 AD, he defeated the Umayyads at the Battle of Jaber and declared himself Caliph.

Support and favorable environment: The descendants of Abul Abbas belonged to the Hashemite tribe and were a close relative of the Prophet Muhammad. So the people welcomed their movement. Shia in particular is widely supported. Umayyad rule bad influence, the battle of Karbala, Arab-non-Arab inequality, disgust in the minds of the people against the Umayyad caliphate. They wish an end to this rule.

The Battle of Jaber: Marwan II used all his strength to resist the Abbasids. He crossed the Tigris River with 120,000 troops and advanced on the banks of the Jab River. The Abbasid forces were led by General Abdullah. The battle took place on 25 January 750 AD in the village of Kusaf on the bank of the Jab River. Marwan was defeated in battle and fled to Damascus. From there they fled to Egypt via Palestine. But on the way, he was caught and killed. His head was sent to Abul Abbas in Kufa. The Umayyad dynasty came to an end with the death of Caliph Marwan II. And held the Abbasid Caliphate.

List of Abbasid Caliph:

  1. Abul As-Saffah.
  2. Abu Jafar Al-Mansur.
  3. Al Mahdi.
  4. Al Hadi.
  5. Harun al-Rashid.
  6. Al Amin.
  7. Al Mamun.
  8. Al Mustasim.
  9. Al Wasik.
  10. Al Mustawakkil.
  11. Al Muntasir.
  12. Al Mustaine.
  13. Al Mutaz.
  14. Al Muhtadi.
  15. Al Mutamid.
  16. Al Mutadid.
  17. Al Muktafi.
  18. Al Muktadir.
  19. Al Qahir.
  20. Al Radi.
  21. Al Muttaki.
  22. Al Mustaqafi.
  23. Al Muti.
  24. Al So.
  25. Al Qadir.
  26. Al Qaim.
  27. Al Muktadi.
  28. Al Mustajir.
  29. Al Mustarshid.
  30. Ar Rasid.
  31. Al Muktafi.
  32. Al Mustanjid.
  33. Al Mustadi.
  34. An Nasir.
  35. Aj Jahir.
  36. Al Mustasir.
  37. Al Mustasim.

Caliph of Cairo:

  1. Al Mustansir II.
  2. First Al-Hakim.
  3. Al Mustaqafi I.
  4. Al Wasik I.
  5. Al-Hakim II.
  6. Al Mutadid I.
  7. Al Mutawakkil I.
  8. Al Wasiq II.
  9. Al Mutasim.
  10. Al Mustawakkil I. regained power.
  11. Al Mustanie.
  12. Al Mustadid II.
  13. Al Mustaqfi II.
  14. Al Qaim.
  15. Al Mustanjid.
  16. Al Mustawakkil II.
  17. Al Mustamasik.
  18. Al Mutawakkil III.

Education Systems: In 830 AD, Caliph Al-Mamun has established the first Islamic University in Bagdhad. The name of this University is Baitul Hikmah. At that time was created the first Hospital to learn Morden Medical sciences. However, the first institution in higher education was Nizamia University, founded by Nizamul Mulk. In 1234, Caliph Al-Mustasir was founded Mustansiriyah to teach the four Mazhab thought.

Theory of Religion: The Practice of Hadiths became extensive during the Abbasid period. Six Major authentic hadiths books were created on the Abbasid Caliphate. These are called Sihah Sittah. Sunni Muslims are following those books. On the other hand, the development of Fiqh during the Abbasid period. For the practical solution of various problems of Islam, four legislators formed four Mazhab on the basis of the Quran, Hadiths, and Ijma.

Practice History: Many popular historians were practicing history during the Abbasid Caliphate. The city of Baghdad was called the city of Knowledge science. Al-Wakedi, Hisham Al-Kalbi, Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Saad, Ibn Abul Hakam, Al-Balazuri, Ibn Qutaybah, Al-Tabari were famous historians in the Muslim world during the Abbasid period.

Medical Sciences: Abbasid’s contribution to medical education. Al-Razi, Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Ibn Masawah, Jibril Ibn Bakhtiyasu, Al-Tabari, Sinan Ibn Thabit Bin Qurrah, Al-Mujasi, Ibn Sina were famous. Al-Razi was the first doctor in the Baghdad Hospital. He is called the father of Surgery. Ibn Sina was creating an Al-Qanun book. This book about medical sciences. He is the father of modern medical sciences. Established the first hospital in Baghdad during the rule of Caliph Harunur Rashid. The name of this hospital is Bimaristan.

 


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