Personal information: Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud was the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. The state of Saudi Arabia was formed in 1932 and he became the fast King of Saudi Arabia. He reigns were from 23 September 1932 to 9 November 1953. During his rule, oil was extracted from one of the mineral resources of Saudi Araba. It became the largest oil producer after world war II. He was maintained was good relations with the United Kingdom and the United States.
Full name: Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdur Rahman ibn Faisal Ibn Turki ibn Abdullah Ibn Muhammad ibn Saud.
Born: 15 January 1875, and his birthplace Riyadh, Najd Emirate.
Death: 9 November 1953, death place Taif, Saudi Arabia.
Father: His father’s name is Abdur Ibn Faisal.
Mother: His mother’s name is Sarah Al Sudairi.
- Waza bint Muhammad.
- Tarfa bint Abdullah.
- Luluwa bint salih.
- Al jawhara bint Musaid and other.
Children: He has about 100 children, including 45 boys. His successor, the monarch, has been nominated from among his descendants.
- Saud bin Abdul Aziz.
- Faisal bin Abdul Aziz.
- Khalid bin Abdul Aziz.
- Fahad bin Abdul Aziz.
- Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz.
- Salam bin Abdul Aziz.
Fast life: In 1890, Al-Rashid captured Riyadh. Ibn Saud was then 15 years old. He and his family moved to Qatar and two months later they moved to Bahrain. Stayed in Bahrain for a short time. In the end, Ibn Saud and this family moved to Kuwait and stayed there for about ten years.
Note: Al-Rashid or Rashid family was the ruling dynasty of the state of Jabal Shamar in the Arabia Peninsula. The Al-Saud family of Najd was their opponent.
Trying to take power: In 1901, Ibn Saud set out for Najd with some of these relatives and his half-brothers. There are many people who join them. He mainly targets Al-Rashid and his powerful members. They decided to attack Riyadh in the month of Ramadan. Fast time Ibn Saud achieve are small victory.
On 15 January 1902, Ibn Saud attacked Riyadh and victory the battle. Rashid Governor Azan was killed. Many old supporters of Al-Saud responded to Ibn Saud’s calls. Ibn Saud supplied arms to his people. Within the next two years, he seized about half of Najd from the Rashid’s.
In 1904, Abdul Aziz bin Mujib sought the cooperation of the Ottoman Empire. The army was sent from the Ottoman Empire.
Note: Abdul Aziz bin Mujib was a member of Rashid’s family.
On June 15, 1904, Ibn Saud’s forces were defeated in a battle with the Ottoman-Rashidi alliance. Ibn Saud started a guerrilla war against the ottomans. Over the next two years, he was able to shut down the opponent’s logistics so they retreated.
The conquest of Rawdat Muhanna ended the ottoman presence in the Najd and Qasim regions in October 1906.
In 1912, Ibn Saud completed his expedition to Najd and the east coast of Arabia. The then formed a force called the Ikhwan. In the same year, the introduced the policy of settling the nomadic Bedouins in different colonies.
Note: The Ikhwan was a Wahhabi militia group. It is mainly fixed by nomadic people. They played a role in the founding of modern Saudi Arabia.
During world war I, The British government established diplomatic relations with Ibn Saud. Ibn Saud’s similar diplomatic relations were established with other Arab powers. The contract of Darin was signed in December 1915. As a result, the land earned by Ale Saud came under British security. In return, Ibn Saud continued to fight against Rashid, an ally of the ottomans.
In 1915, the Saudi Ikhwan start fighting with Sharif Hussein.
Note: Sharif Hussein was the Emir of Mecca.
In 1920, Ibn Saud restart his war against Al-Rashid. By 1922, they were completely destroyed. Their contract was signed in Ukiah in 1922. As a result, the British accepted the victory area of Ibn Saud. In return, Ibn Saud transferred the British to the Gulf.
In 1925, Ibn Saud’s army conquered Mecca from Sharif Hussain. As a result, the 700-year-old Hashemite rule came to an end.
On January 8, 1926, the leaders of Mecca, Medina, and Jeddah declared Ibn Saud King of Hejaz. On 20 May 1926, the British government signed the contract of Jeddah. As a result, Darin’s contract was rejected and the British government accepted Ibn Saud as an Independent King.
By 1927, his forces had victory most of Arabia. At one point, however, objections to the operation led to a rift between the Ikhwan and Al-Saud. The Ikhwan rebelled. In 1929, Ibn Saud suppressed them through the battle of Sabilar.
On September 23, 1932, Ibn Saud annexed the territories under his rule like Saudi Arabia and proclaimed himself King. In 1938, his court was shifted from Masmak fort to Murabba Palace.
Oil exploration: In 1938, American geologists at standard oil of New York discovered oil in Saudi Arabia.
His rule: The newly discovered oil wealth brought great influence and power to Ibn Saud. He forced many nomadic tribes to stop fighting and establish permanent settlements. He strengthened the foundation of the state through Wahhabi ideology.
Ibn Saud was successful in gaining allegiance from the tribes near Arabia. Ibn Saud was neutral during world war II. However, he is thought to have been a supporter of allied forces. Ibn Saud built a railway from the Persian Gulf at Jeddah via Riyadh. Oil company Aramco spent 70 million. Construction of the railway was completed in 1951. It came into use after the death of Ibn Saud. And as a result, Riyadh was becoming a modern city. However, when the road was constructed in 1962, passengers were lost on the railways.
His last words to his sons, future King Saud and his successor King Faisal were “You brothers, unite”
He died on 9 November 1953 at the palace of Prince Faisal in Taif.
Honors: Ibn Saud Order of Bath in 1935.
Legion of Merit in 1948.
In 1952 he was awarded the Order of military merit.
Summary of this post: We need to know how Saudi Arabia was founded. because the future of a country depends on the establishment of a country. Ibn Saud has worked hard for this. As a result Saudi Arabia as a modern country. Until now, the dynasty of Ibn Saud ruled Saudi Arabia. They are currently an important part of international politics.