Abdullah I: Abdullah bin Al-Hussein is known as the founder of Jordan. People have known him as first Abdullah.
From 1921 to 1947 he was emir under the British mandate. Abdullah bin Al-Hussein was the independent King of Jordan from 1948 to 1951. Abdullah served as King of Jordan until his death. He was succeeded by his eldest son Talal.
Born: 2 February 1882 AD. Mecca, Hejaz Vilayet, Ottoman Empire.
Death: 20 July 1951 AD. Jerusalem, West Bank, Jordan.
Father’s Name: Hussein bin Ali.
Mother’s Name: Abdiyya bint Abdullah.
Successor: Talal I.
Dynasty: Hashemite dynasty.
First Life: Abdullah was born on 2 February 1882 in Mecca, Hijaz Vilayet. At that time Mecca under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Abdullah’s father’s name is Hussein bin Ali. His Mother’s name is Abdiyya bint Abdullah. Abdullah was the second son of Hussein bin Ali. Abdullah was educated in Istanbul and Hejaz.
Political Career: Abdullah established a good relationship with the British during the first world war. In 1915, Abdullah proposed to his father to contact Sir Henry Mcmahon for the independence of the Arabs from the Turks. Abdullah led the Arab Eastern Army during the Arab Rebellion of 1916-1918. He started his activities in the Arab rebellion on 10 June 1916 with the Ott0man garrison attack in Taif.
Abdullah led a team of 5,000 people. They did not have the weapons or discipline for a full attack. Instead, he laid siege to the town. On 16 July his artillery began firing. On 22 September the garrison surrendered. After that, he joined the siege of Medina with a force of 4,000 people based to the east and northeast of the town. In August 1917, Abdullah worked with French captain Muhammadad ould Ali Raho to destroy the Hejaz Railway.
The Way the Transjordan Emirate was founded: Abdullah’s brother Faisal was expelled after the French captured Damascus in the battle of Mycenae. Abdullah went to Transjordan with his army to recapture Damascus. When Winston Churchill heard of Abdullah’s plan, he invited Abdullah to the Cairo Conference. He told Abdullah that the French were more powerful than him. And the British did not want to have any problems with the French. Winston Churchill was able to persuade Abdullah.
Abdullah continued negotiations with the British for independence. As a result, the Transjordan Emirate gained independence on 25 May 1946. This is the official independence day of Jordan. Transjordan was renamed Jordan in 1949. His brother Faisal became King of Iraq.
Murder of Abdullah: On 20 July 1951, Abdullah was shot dead by a Palestinian from the Husseini tribe, while visiting the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. He was shot during Friday prayers. His grandson Hussain was also with him at that time. Three shots were fired at his chest and head. His grandson Hussein was also injured. The Killer was a 21 years old man named Mostafa Ashu.