Introduction: Abu Jafar Al-Mansur was the second caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. He was the brother of Abul Abbas As-Saffar. When he cames to power then people give him the title of Al-Mansur. Known as Al-Mansur in Abbasid histories. He was the caliph from 754 AD to 775 AD.
Take power: In 754 AD Abul Abbas’s death then he came to power because her brother nominates before his death. He performed Hajj in Macca when his brother died. He got the news and came to Kufa quickly. And took charge of the caliphate.
Born: 714 AD.
Death: 775 AD.
Father: Muhammad Ibn Ali.
Mother: Raita Al-Harisa.
Son: Muhammad Ibn Abu Jafar.
Al-Mansur was the real founder of the Abbasid caliphate. Because Abul Abbas has established this Caliphate But Al-Mansur has built an administering system stronger of the Abbasid Caliphate. He deals with both his enemy allies equally.
Built strong caliphate: Abdullah declared rebellion, uncle of the Al-Mansur. He was the ruler of Syria. In 754 Abu Muslim was defeated Abdullah in the battle of Nasibin. Abu Muslim was a famous and powerful person. He was the kingmaker of the Abbasid dynasty. He was killed millions of people from the Umayyad Caliphate. So Al-Mansur thinking about him, he was the danger of Abbasid power in the future. Abu Muslim was invited to the court of Al-Mansur. He was killed after a high sentence with him. Abu Muslim supporters declared rebellion, in the area of Persian and Khorasan. Sanabad was the leader of this movement. Al-Mansur sent to the troops. Sanabad has defeated and killed in this battle. In 758 caliph arrested 200 people of the Rwanda community. Because this community thinking about the caliph, “The incarnation of Allah”. It’s against Islamic law. After some days later, 600 people of this community attacked the caliph. General Mayan bin Zaydar saved the Caliph. Thus he suppressed the rebellion and established a strong caliphate.
Battlefield: In 773, Al-Mansur sent troops against the Roman. 70,000 soldiers sent by General Salah and Abbas. Emperor 4th Constantine was defeated in this battle. He built several forts on the Greek border to protect the empire. In 760, the people of Tabaristan was declared rebellion under the lead of Prince Impahande. Al-Mansur sent troops. And defeated this rebellion. Tabaristan area cames under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate. Georgia, Mosul, Armenia, Kurdistan are also cames his rule. After 756 AD, was established Umayyad independent Al-Emirate in Spean. Al-Mansur sent an army against Umayyad. But this battle failed.
Establish Baghdad City: Al-Mansur has established Baghdad City on 762 AD to 766 AD. The cost to build a city is 48,63,000 dirhams. Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Administrations: Al-Mansur formed a skilled regular army. He pays to the salary of his army. And he also formed a spy agency. Al-Mansur appointed Qazis (Judge) to important positions in the Empire to establish justice. Muhammad bin Abdur Rahman was appointed chief qazi of Baghdad. The Caliph built many schools, colleges, and Islamic schools. During his time valuable books written in Greek, Persian, Sanskrit, etc. were translated into Arabic. Valuable books of Aristotle, Euclid, and Ptolemy were translated into Arabic. Baghdad became the city of knowledge science by Al-Mansur.
Summary: Al-Mansur Justice, the best winner, best ruler, Scholarly and he was a good man at heart. Through this king, the Abbasids were able to rule with pride for 508 years. Because he was the real founder of this dynasty.