Al-Rashid: Al-Rashid or Rashidi family. The founding period of Al-Rashid in 1836. The chief of the Al-Rashid dynasty is Abdullah bin Rashid. They were the ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Jabal Shamar in the Arabian Peninsula. The Al Saud family of Najd was their opponent. The city of Hail was the center of Al-Rashid. It’s a close place of Najd.
History of Al-Rashid: The name Al-Rashid is derived from the name of Abdullah bin Rashid. Abdullah bin Rashid Hail, established the emirate. He established close relations with the Ottoman empire. In 1890, the Rashid’s captured Riyadh and defeated the members of Al Saud. There was a dispute over who would be the next emir of Abdullah bin Rashid. The main issue was whether to exchange hands through his brothers or through his sons. Rashid’s sons and brothers are fighting for power. Six Rashidi leaders died violently in the last years of the nineteenth century. However, the Rashidi family continued to rule and took part in the Saudi-Rashidi war together. Ibn Saud and his allies began to bring the Arabian Peninsula under their rule. Al-Rashid failed to win over other tribes.
By 1921, it passed into the hands of Hail ibn Saud. Ibn Saud had the support of most of the tribes of Central Arabia.
List of Al Rashidi Emir:
Abdullah bin Rashid: Abdullah came to power in a revolt against Muhammad bin Ali, the ruler of Hail. Muhammad bin Ali was related to Zafar al-Shamari. Abdullah had a reputation as a leader in bringing stability. Abdullah demanded a treaty from his brother Ubaid through which his inheritance would remain among his descendants. His reign was from 1838 to 1847.
Talal bin Abdullah: Talal was Abdullah’s son. During his reign, the construction of Barzan Palace in Hail was completed. He established trade relations with Iraq. Al-Rashid captured the Saudi Capital Riyadh in 1865. Talal was later shot dead. His son Bandar was only 20 at the time. His reign from 1848 to 1868.
The first Mutib bin Abdullah: He was Talal’s younger brother. Top members of the Rashid family support him. He was then shot dead a year later at Barzan palace. His nephew Bander shot him. His reign from 1868 to 1869.
Bandar bin Talal-1869: Bandar ruled for a very short time. His uncle Muhammad killed him. He had only one son.
Muhammad bin Abdullah I: Muhammad bin Abdullah declared himself the new Amir. All the brothers of Bandar were sentenced to the dead as there was a possibility of revenge. One of Talal’s sons Naif survived. His rule is regarded as Stability, prosperity, and abundance. His rule extended as far as Azawf and palmyra in the north and Khaybar in the west. His reign from 1869 to 1896.
Abdul Aziz bin Mutib: He was the son of Mutib. Muhammad adopted him. He was raised as Muhammad’s successor. Rashid’s rule was threatened as the Ottoman weakened. Abdul Aziz bin Mutib was killed in 1906 in the battle of Raudad Muhanna with Ibn Saud. His reign from 1896 to 1906.
Mutib bin Abdul Aziz II: Mutib succeeded his father, Abdul Aziz. he did not get support from his whole family. One year later he was killed by Sultan bin Hamud. His on power 1906 to 1907.
Sultan bin Hamoud: He was the grandson of Ubaid, the brother of the first emir. He was defeated in a battle with Ibn Saud and deposed through his brothers. His reign from 1907 to 1908.
Saud bin Hamoud al Rashid – 1908 to 1910: Another grandson of the Ubayd. Saud was killed at the hands of relatives by the mother of the tenth emir, Saud bin Abdul Aziz.
Saud bin Abdul Aziz – 1910 to 1920:He was 10 years old when he took charge. In 1920, he was killed by Abdullah bin Talal, the brother of the 12th Amir.
Abdullah bin Mutib II- 1920 to 1921: He was the son of the seventh emire. In 1921 he surrendered to Ibn Saud.
Muhammad bin Talal II- 1921 to 1954: He was the grandson of Naif, the only Surviving son of Amir Talal.
Summary: Al-Rashid’s family is embroiled in a power struggle. It is besically the cause of destruction. Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud took advantage of this opportunity. As a result, Saudi Arabia was established.