Harun al-Rashid: Harun al-Rashid was the 5th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. He was the son of Al Mahdi. Al Mahdi was the 3rd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. Harun was very religious and devout in his life. He serves as Caliph from 786 AD to 809 AD. His rule during the Islamic Golden Age.
Full Name: Harun ar-Rashid ibn Muhammad al-Mahdi.
Born: 17 March 763 AD. or 766 AD. Rey, Jibal, Abbasid Caliphate.
Death: 24 March 809 AD. Khorasan, Abbasid Caliphate.
Father’s Name: Al-Mahdi.
Mother’s Name: Al Khayzurah.
Dynasty: Abbasid Dynasty.
First Life: Harun was born in Rey in the part of the Abbasid Caliphate. He was the son of Al Mahdi. Al Mahdi was the 3rd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. And he also the brother of Al Hadi. Al Hadi was the fourth Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. Harun was learning history, geography, economics, and advance physical education. At that time, he was also learning Hadiths and the Holy Quran. Later, he was learning the art of war. As a result, he became a great Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Caliph: When Caliph Hadi was dead, in 786 Harun became the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. At a young age, he took the power of the Abbasid Caliphate. During his time the Abbasid Caliphate became strong. As a result, the Abbasids rule for more than 500 years.
Ruling Time: He began his reign by appointing very able ministers. Harun led Friday Prayers in Baghdad’s Great Mosque. He was trying to maintain good relations between government officials and the common people. In his time, Baghdad became the most developing city. During his rule, Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture, and trade. He was the founder of the famous library Baitul Hikmah in Baghdad. At this time the role of the Barmaki family began to wane. The Barmaki family was instrumental in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate.
In 796, he moved his court and government office to Raqqa. There was a revolt in Africa during the reign of Caliph Harun. Harsama was sent to quell the rebellion. He suppressed the revolt and appointed Ibrahim ibn Aglab as its ruler. Later Aglabi rule was established there.
During the Caliph Harun, the Kharijites were starting the rebellion against Abbasid Caliphate. The revolt spread to Mosul, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Al Walid led this revolt. The Caliph Harun suppressed the Khariji. Caliph Harun made a contract with the Byzantine Emperor Irene in 802. But when Nesiphorus became the Byzantine emperor, he refused the contract. Caliph Harun led an army campaign against the Byzantines. Nesiphorus was defeated in this battle. But when he revolted again in 808, he was again defeated by Caliph Harun.