Introduction: Iraq and Iran are the nearest countries. Both sides are Muslim. Iraq Sunni Muslim. And Iran Shia Muslim. In 1980, Iraq and Iran have joined the war. This war was permanent for 8 years. Many soldiers and civilians were dead in this war. Many countries on both sides supported. Time of this war, 22 September 1980 to 20 August 1988 AD. At that time Iraq’s president was Saddam Hussein. And Iran President was Ruhullah Khomeini.
The Reason for this war: Attempts to the murder of Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz in Southern Iraq. Saddam Hussein mentioned Iranian agents were responsible for this attack. One of the most reasons for this war border dispute. Iraq brings charges, Iran supports Shia militias inside Iraq.
Locations of this war: Iraq, Iran, and the Persian Gulf.
- The Soviet Union.
- The United States.
- The United Kingdom.
- Saudi Arabia.
- West Germany.
- North Korea.
- South Yemen.
Used Power of Iraq:
- Soldiers: 200,000.
- Tanks: 2,600.
- APC: 4,000.
- Cannons: 1,400.
- Helicopters: 350.
- Fighter Plans: 360.
Used Power of Iran:
- Soldiers: 1,50,000.
- Tanks: 1,800.
- Armored Vehicles: 1,000.
- Fighter Plans: 485.
- Helicopters: 750.
Casualties: More than 100,000 civilians were killed on both sides. Many soldiers were killed on both sides. Iran lost more than 200,000 soldiers. And Iraq lost more than 250,000 soldiers.
Cost of this war: Iran has spent 627 billion U.S. dollars. And Iraq has spent 561 billion U.S. dollars. It’s a big economic loss for both sides.
Details of War: On 22 September 1980, Iraq attacked Iran. Iraq attacked 10 Iranian airbases. Iran’s airports have damaged that attack. But not many aircraft were destroyed. The next day, Iraqi forces were attacked on the ground field. Iraq’s troops across the borders captured 644-kilometers areas. Khuzestan province is captured by Iraq. This is an Iranian oil-rich area. Six divisions of Iran’s ground forces took part in the battle. Four divisions were attacked Khuzestan. And the other two divisions were attacked Abadan and Khorramshahr. Important oil-rich Iran occupied the ports of Abadan and Khorramshahr. The Iranian air force retaliated by hitting Iraqi targets. On 24 September Iran Navy attacked Busra. Two oil terminal was destroyed by the Iranian Navy, near Fhaow Port. In the mouth of October, Iran recaptured the city of Khorramshahr. At that time Iraq appointed 21 division troops in this war. On the other hand, Iran appointed 13 division troops in this battle.
On 5 January 1981, started Tanks war both sides tanks were joined. Iraq lost 50 tanks in this battle. On the other hand, Iran lost 100 tanks in this war. Starting in this year Iran recaptured many cities. In May, Iran has recaptured the highlands near Susanjard. In the mouth of September, Iran recaptured the city of Abadan. On December 7, Iran recaptured Boston city. Iraq declared any ship that leaves Iran will become their target. Iran decided to close the Strait of Hormuz. The United States has said it will launch a direct war against Iran if the Strait of Hurmuz is closed. In this case, Iran closes his decision. Only the decision to continue attacking the Iraqi ship remains unwavering.
Iran attacked a Kuwaiti tanker near Bahrain on May 13, 1984. A Saudi tanker was also attacked inside Saudi waters on May 16. As a result, Saudi Arabia shot down an Iranian plane on June 5, 1984. The tanker war shook the United States. But the United States not involved in this war.
For six years the Iranian forces played a leading role in the war. Despite repeated diplomatic efforts by the United Nations, the war lasted until August 1988. This war is similar to the strategy of the Worl War I.
Result of this war: Iraq fails to occupy territory east of shat Al-Arab and awaken Arab separatism in Khuzestan. Iran fails to oust Saddam Hussein or destroy the Iraqi military. The United Nations-brokered ceasefire.