Marwan I: Marwan I was the 4th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was a cousin of Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan. When Mu’awiya II loses his power, Marwan became the Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. As a result, loses the power of the Abu Sufian dynasty. And starting the ruling of the Hakam dynasty under the Umayyad dynasty. Because they include the Umayyad dynasty. Marwan I ruled from June 684 to May 685. Marwan ruled as Caliph for short time.
Full Name: Marwan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abul as ibn Umayya.
Born: 28 March 623 AD.
Death: 7 May 685 AD. Damascus, Umayyad Caliphate.
Father’s Name: Al-Hakam ibn Abul As.
Mother’s Name: Amina bint Alqama al-Kinaniyya.
Predecessor: Mu’awiya II.
Successor: Abd al-Malik.
Rise the Power of Marwan’s: During the Caliph Uthman, Marwan as serving as the governor of Fars(south-western Iran). Later, he became the Caliph’s Katib(secretary). Caliph Ali removed him from this post. Caliph Ali removed him from this post. When Mu’awiya I established the Umayyad Caliphate, he became the governor of Medina. After the death of Yazid I in 683, the rebellion of Mecca started. Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr announced himself as a Caliph. Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr expelled Marwan, who took refuge in Syria, the center of Umayyad rule. From here he went to Damascus. After the death of Mu’awiya II, he became the Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate.
His Reign As Caliph: In June 684, Marwan became the Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. When he came to power, he tries to strengthen the caliphate. He recovery many areas from Abdullah Ibn al-Zubayr. During his reign, he fought a civil war with the Syrian Arabs and Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr. Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr ruled over the Hejaz, Iraq, Egypt, and some parts of Syria. In the battle of Marj Rahit, Marwan occupied Syria. Marwan recaptured Egypt and Syria from Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr. But Marwan could not defeat Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr completely.
Death: After the short reign, Marwan died on 7 May 685 AD. Damascus, Umayyad Caliphate. After his death, his son Abd al-Malik became the Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Hakam dynasty was in power until 750 AD.