Muhammad Ali Jinnah who the father of the Nation of Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a great politician and the great leader of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the founder of Pakistan. He served as Pakistan’s first Governor-General until his death. His birthday is celebrated as a national holiday in Pakistan.
- Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader).
- Baba-i-Qaum (Father of the Nationa).
Born: 25 December 1876 AD. Karachi, British India.
Death: 11 September 1948 AD. Karachi, Pakistan.
Father’s Name: Jinnahbhai Poonja.
Mother’s Name: Mithibai.
First Life: Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25 December 1876 in Karachi, Bombay Presidency, British India. In his childhood, his name was Muhammad Ali Jinnahbai. His father’s name was Jinnahbhai Poonja. Jinnah’s father was a Gujarati businessman. In his childhood Jinnah went to Bombay spent time with his relative. At that time Jinnah started his education.
Education Life of Jinnah: Jinnah was admitted to Gokal Das Primary School. Later, he was admitted to Cathedral and John Cunn College. In Karachi, Jinnah attended Sindh Madrasatul Islam and Christian Missionary Society high school. He passed Matriculation from Bombay University.
First Job: In 1892, Sir Frederick Leigh Croft offered Muhammad Ali Jinnah to work as an apprentice at his Graham Shipping and Trading Company in London. Sir Frederick was Jinnah’s father’s business associate. Jinnah’s mother did not agree about this job. But Jinnah agreed to the offer. Before joining the job, Jinnah was married to Amybay Jinnah of their village Pinali. After joining his job, Jinnah’s mother and first wife died. In 1893, Jinnah’s family moved to Bombay.
Law Study: After working in London for some months, Jinnah quit his job. Because Jinnah decided to start his law study. Jinnah’s father did not agree with his decision. Jinnah started to follow an established Barrister to receive knowledge of the law. Jinnah learned from the work of his teacher barrister. And Jinnah also learns from law books. At this time he shortened his name to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. In 1895, Jinnah became the youngest Call to the Bar in England. At that time Jinnah only 19 Years old. Shortly after returning to Karachi, he moved to Bombay.
As a Barrister of Jinnah: At the age of 20, Jinnah has started his profession of law in Bombay. At that time Jinnah was the only Muslim Barrister in Bombay. Jinnah was offered a seat in the legislature, with a monthly salary of Rs 1,500. He rejects it. Because he was then able to earn Rs 1,500 daily. This amount of money was very valuable at that time. In 1907, Jinnah gained a reputation as a lawyer for his efficient handling of the Caucasus Case.
Jinnah’s Political Career: In 1857, there was a revolt against British rule. In 1885, the Indian National Congress was established. Most of the founding members of the Indian National Congress were studied in England. For the first time, Muslims were not interested in democracy. Jinnah’s political career began in December 1904 when he attended the 20th annual session of the Congress. Jinnah was a member of the moderate party in Congress.
The All India Muslim League was formed in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan III. Jinnah opposed the All India Muslim League because he believed that separate elections would divide the nation. In December 1912, Jinnah has given a speech at the annual session of the All India Muslim League. But at that time he was not a member of the League. Jinnah joined the Muslim League in 1913 and was a member of the Congress at the same time. The Lucknow Agreement was signed between the two parties in 1916 while Jinnah was the president of the Muslim League. During World War I, Jinnah and other Indian Moderate leaders sided with the British.
In 1918, Jinnah married his second wife Ratanbai Petit. Their only child Dina Jinnah was born on August 15, 1919. Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s second wife died in 1929. After his wife died, Jinnah’s sister Fatima took over the responsibility of Jinnah’s family.
In 1919, relations between the British and the Indian’s conditions were bad. Muhammad Ali Jinnah resigned from the Council. Mahatma Gandhi Called for Satyagraha. At Gandhi’s call, there was great support from the Hindus. And also became popular among Muslims who took part in the Khilafah Movement. As a result, Muslims also joined it. After the first world war, the Ottoman Empire was threatened with extinction by the British. Gandhi was popular with Muslims for working for Muslims during the war.
Jinnah believed that autonomy was possible only through constitutional means. Jinnah opposed Gandhi but the people supported Gandhi. Due to differences of opinion with the Congress, Jinnah resigned from the Congress and remained a member of the Muslim League.
In 1920, Jinnah was again involved in the legal profession. At the same time, he is involved in politics. The resistance movement against the British continued. In September 1923, Jinnah was elected a Muslim member of the newly formed Central Legislative Assembly from Bombay.
At the December 1927 and January 1928 meetings, Jinnah was declared the permanent president of the League. Most of the leaders of the Muslim League were loyal to Jinnah. He proposed to have a mandatory representation of Muslims in the legislature and cabinet. His proposal became known as Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.
He lived in Britain most of the time between 1930 and 1934. Abdul Karim Darad met Jinnah in March 1933 and requested him to return to India. Liaquat Ali Khan and his wife met Muhammad Ali Jinnah and requested him to return to the country. Liaquat Ali Khan later became an important political assistant of Jinnah. In early 1934, Jinnah sold his home in Britain and returned to India after quitting his legal career.
The Congress was well prepared for the 1937 provincial elections. The League won a Muslim seat in Delhi but was unable to form a government. As a result, the Congress and the League formed the government together. For the next two years, Jinnah worked to increase support for the Muslim League. He brought the Muslim League in line with the Congress and most of the power was vested in the working committee.
Fight For Pakistan: In a speech to the session of the Muslim League in Allahabad in 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for the formation of a Muslim state in India. Jinnah and Iqbal exchanged views in 1936 and 1937. In later years, Jinnah adopted Iqbal’s ideas. Attempts to form a Congress-League coalition government in the united provinces failed during the 1937 provincial elections. The provincial Congress government has not tried to understand the cultural and religious sentiments of Muslims.
For these reasons, the Muslim League demanded Pakistan. The Muslim League claims that they are able to protect the interests of Muslims alone. On September 3, 1939, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain declared war against Germany. On 14 September the Congress demanded immediate independence in a session. When the demand was rejected, eight provincial governments resigned on 10 November. Jinnah was keen to receive the British. As a result, the British also became attracted to him. However, the Muslim League did not effectively support Britain in the war.
In February 1940, the working committee of the Muslim League met for four days. On February 6, Jinnah told the Viceroy that the Muslim League favored a separate state rather than a federation. The Lahore Proposal adopted the biracial theory. The resolution was passed at the session of the Muslim League on 23 March 1940 in Lahore. Gandhi was dissatisfied with the Lahore proposal. Jawaharlal Nehru called the Lahore proposal “Jinnah’s excellent Proposal”.
The Congress started the Quit India Movement in August 1942. There was a huge response. Most of the Congress leaders were arrested. Gandhi was kept under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace. He was released in 1944 due to health reasons. Meanwhile, Muhammad Ali Jinnah continued his demand for Pakistan. In September 1944, Jinnah and Gandhi met at Malabar Hill in Bombay. They talked for two weeks but did not reach a decision. Jinnah was of the view that Pakistan should be established before the departure of the British. On the other hand, Gandhi wanted a decision on the partition after India became independent.
In December 1945 elections, the Muslim League won all the seats reserved for Muslims. In the provincial elections held in January of the following year. The Muslim League was able to gain 75% of the Muslim vote. This victory proved the aspirations of Pakistan in the minds of the Muslims of India.
In December 1946, Jinnah put pressure on Pakistan to become an independent state with Dominion status. On 2 June the final plan was presented to the Indian leaders by the Viceroy. It is said that on 15 August the British would hand over power to the two Dominions. After the creation of Pakistan, Jinnah became the Dominion Governor-General of Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was in this position until his death. After his death, Khawaja Nazimuddin became the 2nd Governor-General of Pakistan.
Mazar E Quaid, Jinnah Mausoleum, Karachi, Pakistan.
Death: Muhammad Ali Jinnah died on 11 September 1948 at his residence in Karachi. He was buried on 12 September.