Ottoman Empire

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Introduction: The Ottoman Empire is a very important part of Muslim history. This Caliphate was established after the fail of the Banul Abbasi caliphate. Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Caliphate, was born in the same year that Halaku Khan destroyed Baghdad the capital of the Abbasi Caliphate. After the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate was established. A total of 37 ruled the Ottoman Caliphate for 636 years.

The identity of the Ottomans: In history, it is known as the Turkish Empire or the Ottoman Empire. Ertugrul Ghazi, the father of Sultan Osman, dreamed of establishing this empire. Osman’s father, Ertugrul was a Kayi Kabila leader of the Oghuz Turk dynasty. After the death of Osman’s father, he first came to power on 3 May 1281 AD.

Establishment of the Ottoman Empire: Osman was given charge of Anatolia by the Seljuk Empire. At fast he was loyal to the Seljuk Empire in Rome. He declared independence on 17 January 1299 AD. From then on, the Ottoman Empire was established. Halima Sultana, the mother of Sultan Osman, was a Princess of the Seljuk Empire. Osman was also the son-in-law of the Seljuk dynasty.

Capital of the Ottoman Empire:

  • Sogut – 1299 AD to 1335 AD.
  • Bursa – 1335 AD to 1363 AD.
  • Edirne – 1363 AD to 1453 AD.
  • Constantinople – 1453 AD to 1922 AD.

The size of the Empire:

  • 1683 AD – 52,00,000 Square Kilometers.
  • 1914 AD – 18,00,000 Square Kilometers.

List of Ottoman Sultans:

  1. Sultan Osman.
  2. Sultan Orhan.
  3. Sultan Murad I.
  4. Sultan Bayezid I.
  5. Sultan Mehmed I.
  6. Sultan Murad II.
  7. Sultan Mehmed II.
  8. Sultan Bayezid II.
  9. Sultan Selim I.
  10. Sultan Sulaiman I.
  11. Sultan Selim II.
  12. Sultan Murad III.
  13. Sultan Muhammad III.
  14. Sultan Ahmad I.
  15. Sultan Mustafa I.
  16. Sultan Osman II.
  17. Sultan Murad IV.
  18. Sultan Ibrahim.
  19. Sultan Muhammad IV.
  20. Sultan Sulaiman II.
  21. Sultan Ahmad II.
  22. Sultan Mustafa II.
  23. Sultan Ahmad III.
  24. Sultan Mahmud I.
  25. Sultan Osman III.
  26. Sultan Mustafa III.
  27. Sultan Abdul Hamid I.
  28. Sultan Selim III.
  29. Sultan Mustafa IV.
  30. Sultan Mahmud II.
  31. Sultan Abdul Majid.
  32. Sultan Abdul Aziz.
  33. Sultan Murad V.
  34. Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
  35. Sultan Muhammad V.
  36. Sultan Muhammad VI.
  37. Sultan Abdul Majid II.

The rise of the empire: In 1299 Sultan Osman’s army captured Yani. The city of Yeni was the first capital of the Ottoman Caliphate. In 1301, Osman fought a war with Greece. Greece was then the heart of the Eastern Roman Empire. In the Battle of Kuyun, the Greek General Muzalon was defeated. The Roman Empire lost many areas. In 1302, the King of Greece marched against Osman with a large army. The King of Greece was defeated in the battle. The Asian region of his Kingdom fell to Osman. In 1324, Orkhan the son of Sultan Osman fought against the Greeks and captured the famous city of Bruce. This Bruce then became the capital of the Ottoman Caliphate.

Northwest Anatolia came under Ottoman control. In 1389 Salonika was conquered by the Bhenisiyan. After the conquest of Kosovo in 1389, the journey of the Ottomans to Europe became easier. The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 is seen as the last Crusade of the Middle Ages. The Ottomans win this Battle. In 1402, Timur Long defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara. Sultan Bayezid I was captured. Bayezid’s children became embroiled in a civil war over power. This war lasted from 1402 to 1413 AD. Eventually Muhammad I became Sultan. The power of the Ottomans was restored. In 1402, parts of the Balkans, such as Ceylon, Macedonia, and Kosovo, fell to the Ottomans. Sultan Murad II restored it between 1430 to 1450 AD.

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