Sukarno: Sukarno was a great leader in Indonesia. He was the founder of the Republic of Indonesia. He was the first President of Indonesia. He was the leader of Indonesia’s nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period. He is the father of the Indonesian Nation. He was in power as President of Indonesia from 1945 AD to 1967 AD.
Born: 6 June 1901 AD. Soerabaja, Dutch East Indies.
Death: 21 June 1970 AD. Jakarta, Indonesia.
Father’s Name: Soekemi Sosrodihardjo.
Mother’s Name: Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai.
Political Party: Indonesian National Party.
First Life And Education: In 1901 AD, Sukarno was born in Soerabaja in the Dutch East Indies. He was started primary education at a local school in 1912 AD. Then he joined a Dutch middle school in Mojokerto. In 1916, he was admitted to a Dutch high school in Surabaya. He was talented for languages, including Arabic, Indonesia, German, English, Dutch, French, Balinese, Japanese.
Independence Movement: When Sukarno was studying in high school, he was thinking about his country for independence. During his college, he researched many political philosophies. He was established the Algemeene Studieclub for Indonesian students dominated by Dutch students. On 4 July 1927 AD, Sukarno with his friends was established Indonesian National Party (PNI). Sukarno was elected the first leader. This party trying to Independence for Indonesia. PNI party was against imperialism and capitalist systems. Both systems did badly affected the life of the Indonesian People.
The PNI party began to attract a large number of followers. Their many followers are University students. Because every Indonesian student wants to Independent. Sukarno was started his speeches and meetings against the colonial secret police. PNI party activities come to the attention of the colonial government. Sukarno and other Prime PNI leaders have arrested on 29 December 1929 AD.
His case went to court from August to December 1930. In December 1930, Sukarno was sent to prison for four years. His speeches received inclusive coverage by the press. The government fell under hard pressure. On 31 December 1931, Sukarno was released early. At that time, Sukarno had become a popular hero in Indonesia.
When Sukarno was in prison, The PNI party was disbanded by Dutch. PNI had been divided by the colonial authorities and internal friction. former members established two different parties. Indonesia Party (partindo) under Sartono leadership. Sartono was closer to Sukarno. And the other, the Indonesian Nationalist Education (New PNI). under Mohammad Hatta and Soetan Sjahrir.
Two parties to establish one united nationalist front. On 28 July 1932, Sukarno became the head of Partindo. Sukarno has maintained the movement with his own tactics. Sukarno did not agree with Hatta’s long-term cadre-based struggle. Hatta believes Indonesia doesn’t independent in his lifetime. Sukarno was traveled to Java to establish contacts with other nationalists. Dutch PID has attracted Sukarno activities.
When Sukarno was visiting nationalist Mohammad Hosni Thamrin in Jakarta. On 1 August 1933, Sukarno was arrested by Dutch police. Governor uses his emergency powers to sent Sukarno to prison without trial. In February 1942 Imperial Japan invaded the Dutch East Indies. When Japanese forces launched an operation in Indonesia, Sukarno was released. He and his nationalist activists came to an agreement to help the Japanese in the war.
After the surrender of the Japanese forces, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared the Independence of Indonesia on 16 August 1945 AD. And Sukarno was elected the first President of Indonesia. The Dutch tried again to establish a colony. But Sukarno thwarted this attempt diplomatically and militarily by uniting the people.
Sukarno pursued some radical anti-imperialist foreign policies from the Soviet Union and China. In a movement on September 30, Indonesia’s leftist party broke up and was replaced by one of its generals, Suharto. He was kept under house arrest until his death on 21 July 1970 AD.