Sultan Abdul Hamid II

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Introduction: He was the 34th Caliph of the Ottoman Empire. In 1876 AD, Abdul Hamid comes to power in the Ottoman Empire. He was the great sultan of the ottoman empire. He had so many enemies in his empire. Seeing the rebellion at this time. Bulgaria rebellion one of them. Young Turkish organizations were active during his time. He reigns from 31 December 1876 AD to 26 April 1909 AD.

Born: 21 September 1842 AD. Topkapi Palace, Istanbul.

Death: 19 February 1918 AD. Bailerbeak Palace, Istanbul.

Father: First Abdul Majid.

Mother: Tirimuzgan Kadin and his adopted Mother Rahim Perestu Kadin.

Tomb: Tomb of Sultan Mahmud II.

Predecessor: Fifth Murad.

Successor: Muhammad the Fifth.

Dynasty: Ottoman dynasty.

First Life: He was the fifth out of the thirty children of Sultan Abdul Majid. After losing his mother for ten years. He was brought up by his stepmother. She has no children. She nurtured him with great affection. When Abdul Hamid becoming the Caliph, he declared her the queen mother. He studied Arabic, Persian, and history with them. He also studied literature. From his childhood, he was in the habit of keeping abreast of regular newspapers and world politics. He tried to understand the Ottoman position in world politics.

Come to Power: He was the third prince in his father’s lifetime. His uncle becomes caliph after his father died. He has died In 1876 AD. His elder brother fifth Murad has become the caliph. Fifth Murad was involved in the murder of his uncle. Fifth Murad was a member of the Free Mission, a world organization of Jews. He was brought to power to turn the Khilafah into a constitutional monarchy by promulgating a Buniani constitution. But when he comes to power, he becomes mentally unbalanced. Then at the age of 34, Prince Abdul Hamid becomes the caliph. At that time freemason and Young Turks had a single dominance. Obliged, he took charge of the caliphate on the condition of mischief. Midhat Pasha, the British agent, was compelled to inform the chief vizier. On their terms, he proclaimed the Buniani Constitution. As a result, the Caliphate was transformed into a constitutional monarchy.

Young Turks: The Young Turks organization was formed under the leadership of Muhammad Bay and Namik kamal to demand constitutional reform. These young people are inspired by European thought. They want to break the ottoman caliphate and build a European style country. Caliph Abdul Aziz did not tolerate their interference in the administration. He took administrative action against them. Young Turks went abroad and took refuge. They returned during the time of caliph Abdul Hamid. They get the support of the most influential people in the capital. This time the Young Turks became stronger under the leadership of Midhat Pasha. He is said to be the real founder of the Young Turks.

Committee of Union and Progress: The Committee of union and progress was formed in 1906 under the leadership of Anwar Pasha. His main collaborators were Talat Pasha and Jamal Pasha. This committee continues to work closely with the Young Turks. The organization’s programs included the formation of Turkey as a European-Style country, constitutional reform, freedom of the press, and the Universal of Human Rights.

Removal from power: In 1876 Bulgaria, one of the territories of the Ottoman Caliphate, declared a revolt. Sultan Hamid suppressed the revolt with a stern hand. The leaders conducted the operation in accordance with Islamic rules. It is also resentment among the common people. Meanwhile, the Young Turks’ movement continued to escalate. They became very strong day by day. Part of the army joined the Young Turks and the Committee of the Union. In 1908 they started marching towards the capital. The Sultan was compelled to declare the constitution according to their demands. The reign of the Young Turks began. But even them Abdul Hamid was the head of the caliphate according to the rules of the constitution. His position was a major obstacle to Jewish resettlement in Palestine. Meanwhile, the regime situation of the Young Turks deteriorated. Using this, on 31 April 1909, the Jewish lobby staged a counter-revolution in favor of the Sultan in the capital. So that a few leaders of the Young Turks were killed. After that, the situation was brought under control and the Sultan was blamed for all this and he was removed. He was sent into exile that night. He was then brought to Istanbul and placed in the Bailerbeak Palace. The great caliph died in this palace on 10 February 1918.

Summary: The Jews wanted to pay Caliph Abdul Hamid 150 million pounds for the transfer of the Baitul Muqaddas Temple. But he did not agree to leave the Muslim world alone. Much has been written about him in history. Sultan Osman established the Ottoman Empire.

 


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