Sultan Orhan.

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Introduction: Orhan was the second Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Orhan, also called Orhan Ghazi. Orhan also spelled Orkhan. Sultan Orkan was the son of Sultan Osman. He was born in 1281 in Sogut. Osman appointed him his successor. Sultan Orhan lived a simple life. He was a good ruler of high quality. Like his father, he was skilled in tactics. His reign was from 29 July 1326 to 1362 AD.

Father: Sultan Osman.

Mother: Malhun Khatun.

Wife:

  • Nilufar Khatun.
  • Asporcha Khatun.
  • Theodora Khatun.
  • Eftandis Khatun.

Son:

  • Murad.
  • Sulaiman Pasha.

Bron: 1281 AD. in Sogut.

Death: March in 1362 AD.

Predecessor: Sultan Osman.

Successor: Sultan Murad I.

Dynasty: Ottoman dynasty.

Formation of Jannisa’s forces: Jannissar formed an army of Christian youths who had converted to Islam.

State expansion: In 1321, he captured Madania, the port of the Marmara Sea. The Marmara Sea occupies the southeast coast. In 1324 Orhan captured the famous city of Burca. Orhan sent troops to the Bosphorus and captured the Byzantine cities along the Marmara Sea. In 1331 the Nicea city surrendered. Izmit or Nicomedia was captured in 1337. With the capture of Uskurda in 1338, most of northern Anatolia fell to the Ottomans. In 1345, Orhan captured the nearby Turkish Kingdom of Karesi. As a result, almost the whole of northwestern Anatolia came under Ottoman rule. The cities of Bursa, Izmit, Iznik, and Bergama became strongholds of the Ottomans.

Achievements: During his time various civilian and military organizations were established. He built Mosques in different parts of the state. Established educational institutions and hospitals. He turned the capital Bursa, into a Muslim city. Built a lovely mosque in the capital. He has contributed to the expansion and well-being of the new empire.

Summary: Orhan’s reign was an important part of the Ottoman Empire. During his reign, this empire became stronger. The fall of the Byzantine Empire began.

 

 

 


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